Abraham "Bram" Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish novelist and short story writer, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula. During his lifetime, he was better known as personal assistant of actor Henry Irving and business manager of the Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned.

Ingunn Anna Ragnarsdóttir: The Vampires of Anne Rice. From Byron to Lestat

The Vampires of Anne Rice
From Byron to Lestat
Ritger! til B.A.-prófs
Ingunn Anna Ragnarsdóttir
Maí 2011
Háskóli Íslands
Hugvísindasvi!
Enska
The Vampires of Anne Rice
From Byron to Lestat
Ritger! til B.A.-prófs
Ingunn Anna Ragnarsdóttir
Kt.: 020382 5979
Lei!beinandi: Úlfhildur Dagsdóttir
Maí 2011

Abstract
The myth of the vampire can be found throughout history. When the literary vampire
came forth its popularity kept growing steadily. This essay will be discussing the
author Anne Rice and her Vampire Chronicles and how her writing helped change and
forge a new tradition in vampire fiction. The specifics of Rice’s vampires characters
will be discussed, the changes she produced, and the explicit traits of the vampires in
Rice’s fiction such as their connection to the Byronic hero and to the sexuality of the
vampire. To bring out the these traits this essay will analyze the first three books in
The Vampire Chronicles to show how Rice manages to grab the reader through not
only her story-telling talent, but Rice’s intellectual, melancholic, erotic and alluring
characters that are somewhat perverse but in an oddly charming and seductive way.

Table of Contents
Introduction 5
Brief History of Vampires in l i terature. 7
Changes in the Li terary Vampire 12
The Author, Anne Rice 15
Rice Begins to Write!
The Byronic Vampire in Anne Rice’s Vampire Characters 19
The Vampire Chronicles – The First Three Books 22
Interview With The Vampire (1976)
The Vampire Lestat (1985)
The Queen of the Damned (1988)
Later Novels in The Vampire Chronicles 30
Conclusion 31
Works Cited 33

Vampires are by their very nature perverse and do wicked and terrible things
simply for the sport of it.
The Vampire Armand, 1998 (Rice 6)

Introduction
The vampire myth has been with the human race for centuries as Theresa Bane duly
notes in her Encyclopedia of Vampire Mythology (2010). Each culture throughout
history has had some sort of embodiment of the vampire that was to blame for
unexplained deaths or causing plagues (Bane 1). According to Bane, one of the earliest
pieces of writing that has been discovered was not, as she puts it, “a love poem, recipe,
or a religious text but rather a magical spell written around 4000 B.C.” She notes, that
it was allegedly to have been written by a mother in order to protect her child from the
EKIMMOU, “a type of vampire spirit that even then was considered to be an ancient
evil” (Bane 7). So then as stated by Bane, even in ancient times the vampire myth was
an ancient myth and there seems to be evidence of some sort of vampire threat in many
countries and in ancient as well as in earlier cultures.

What is a vampire exactly? That is a very hard question to answer considering the
amount of encyclopedias and non-fiction books and essays written about them.
Vampires seem to be different in every culture and age, as Bane points out: “The reason
that there is no single definition of a vampire is because each culture of people, from
their various time periods and from their various locations, has feared different things”
(Bane 3).
The intention of this essay is to explore the development of the literary vampire and
then to discuss a specific type of vampires, the literary vampires in the fiction of Anne
Rice. The literary vampire has been given much attention and discussion regarding their
meaning and what they represent and the debate around the vampires in Rice’s novels
has still not ceased. Vampires seem to hold fascination with all ages and genders and
the vampires in Rice’s fiction are no exception as is noted in the introduction of the
book dedicated to Rice’s writings, The Gothic World of Anne Rice, “Vampires,
Witches, Mummies, and Other Charismatic Personalities: Exploring the Anne Rice
Phenomenon” (1996) written by Gary Hoppenstand and Ray B. Browne. They mention
that at one of Rice’s book signings there could be seen, young adults and teens sporting
the Goth fashion, all in black and with dramatic hairstyles and jewelry, but among them
were also “baby boomers, conservatively clad, as well as a considerable number of
older readers” noting that Rice’s fiction seems to attract readers that would normally not
read horror fiction (Hoppenstand and Browne 2). On a personal note, when I first
started reading Rice’s novels as a teenager, once finished I would pass the book on to
my mother who read them all as well. It is also worth mentioning that when I started
reading Rice’s vampire novels around the year 1995 I never realized at that time that
Interview with the Vampire (1976) was written 19 years earlier. Even when I read it
again around 2005 it never occurred to me that it was written so many years before,
Rice’s writing felt very modern and I was sure that the books were written sometime in
the 1990s. There is timelessness to her writing that might be why Rice’s novels are still
popular today.
With the publication of Rice’s first novel in The Vampire Chronicles, she brought
forth a new kind of literary vampire that would from then on continue to develop, both
by Rice herself and among new writers. The special traits of Rice’s vampires will be
discussed in this essay, traits that have made them so popular since her first publication
in 1976. Their sensuousness, their suffering and agonizing as well as their love and
passion for life and living (as much as one can live when being dead). What has made
Rice’s vampires so special? From their obvious differences to Dracula to their
connection to the Byronic hero and of course their sexuality or perhaps lack thereof are
all aspects to the success of Anne Rice’s vampires. I will analyze in the first three
novels of Rice’s Vampire Chronicles the concepts, homoeroticism, the perverse family,
the relationships between vampire and vampire, female vampires and the different
views of feminism, and how Rice changed the image of the vampire from the cold and
aloof Dracula and made way for the sympathetic vampire of today.
Brief History of Vampires in l i terature.
Before discussing the vampires in Rice’s fiction it is important to look back over the
literary vampires to understand the differences and contrasts between the old and the
new vampire. When searching for the history of the literary vampire it is hard to find
anything substantial written about the literary vampire before John Polidori’s “The
Vampyre”, as Carol A. Senf mentions in her article “Daughters of Lilith: Women
Vampires in Popular Literature” (1999), vampires hardly exist in literature before the
nineteenth century (Senf 199). This brief history set down here will therefore not be an
exhaustive recitation but will only mention the highlights of the vampire in literature.
According to J.P. Telotte in his essay “A Parasitic Perspective: Romantic
Participation and Polidori’s The Vampyre”, the first literary vampire in English
literature is John Polidori’s Lord Ruthwen in “The Vampyre” (Telotte 9). It was
published in 1819 in Henry Colburn’s The New Monthly Magazine under the name of
Byron. Milly Williamson in her book The Lure Of The Vampire (2005), states that it is
debated whether Polidori intentionally used Byron’s name or not (Williamson 51), but
Richard Switzer in his article “Lord Ruthwen and the Vampires” (1955), suggests that
Polidori was not confident enough to publish the story under his own name and
therefore used Byron’s name. Switzer remarks that Byron denied having anything to do
with it, quoting a letter Byron wrote the same year the story was published: “A few days
ago I sent you all I know of Polidori’s Vampire [sic]. He may do, say, or write what he
pleases, but I wish he would not attribute to me his own compositions” (Switzer 108).
However, Rosemary Ellen Guiley in her book The Encyclopedia Of Vampires,
Werewolves and Other Monsters (2005) claims it was created by Lord Byron himself
and then plagiarized by Polidori (Guiley 8). This seems to be a mystery that will
continue to be unsolved. According to Switzer, Lord Byron, along with Percy Bysshe
Shelley and his future wife, Mary Shelley were going on a vacation in Switzerland in
1816 and Polidori accompanied them as Byron’s physician-secretary. Byron apparently
suggested that they each write a ghost story and this suggestion produced from Mary
Shelley her famous novel Frankenstein (1818), and Polidori’s “The Vampyre” (Switzer
108).
Williamson states that the vampire became a Gothic success with the publication of
Polidori’s “The Vampyre”. The story became popular both in Europe and in America
being published in three editions in America, three editions from Paris in English along
with a French translation and a German version was also published in the year 1819, an
Italian one in 1824, then in the year 1827 a Swedish version and a Spanish version in
1829 (Williamson 51). Williamson also remarks that it is generally acknowledged that
Polidori based his vampire, Lord Ruthven on Byron and that one of the reasons for its
popularity was because of the connection to Byron. The reason for this detailed
description of Polidori’s vampire and its connection to Byron is because the figure of
Byron, the outcast, the sinister aristocrat and his infamy has become connected to the
figure of the vampire (Williamson 36), and will be better discussed later in this essay.
Although Polidori’s Lord Ruthwen in “The Vampyre” is the first contemporary
vampire in English literature it is interesting to note that there is, according to Guiley,
another story from ca. 1800 where the modern vampire can be recognized. “Wake Not
The Dead” is the English title to this short story credited to the German fabulist Johann
Ludwig von Tieck. It is about a nobleman who is obsessed over his dead wife and
eventually finds a necromancer who brings her back from death. The wife however, has
developed a taste for human blood and soon kills all in her husband’s household, along
with his adopted children from his second marriage. He is able to overcome her but
“ultimately pays a horrible price for disturbing the natural order” (Guiley 8).
The next vampire literature worth mentioning, published in the nineteenth century
was a story called Varney the Vampire written by a British man named James Malcolm
Rymer. It was published through the years 1845-1847 in a form of pamphlets or “penny
dreadfuls” that were “an inexpensive novel of violent adventure or crime that was
especially popular in mid-to-late Victorian England. Penny dreadfuls were often issued
in eight-page installments” (Britannica). Williamson attributes the growth of literacy in
the nineteenth century to the success of Varney the Vampire among the working class
and states that Varney the Vampire is the tale that popularized the vampire with the
English-speaking reading public (Williamson 21)
The next highlight is in the year 1872, which introduces “Carmilla”, an erotic female
lesbian vampire written by the Irishman’s J. Sheridan Le Fanu. Robert F. Geary in his
essay ““Carmilla” And The Gothic Legacy: Victorian Transformations of Supernatural
Horror” (1999), states that the level of the lesbian eroticism, taking into account the
time it was published in, is surprisingly unambiguous (Geary 19). Carmilla is a lesbian
vampire who starts to pursue the nineteen-year-old Laura who lives alone with her
father. On invitation from Laura’s father Carmilla stays with them and Laura and
Carmilla become close friends. Senf declares that female vampires are often depicted as
“bloodsuckers, rebels, or both” but more often than not they are “characterized by overt
eroticism” (Senf 204).
In 1897 one of the best-known vampire fiction within the vampire genre is published,
Dracula, by Bram Stoker. Laurence A. Rickels in his book The Vampire Lectures
(1999) mentions that when Stoker wrote his novel he examined archives in the British
museum to study the history of vampires to support his novel (Rickels 1). According to
Kathryn McGinley in her essay “Development of the Byronic Vampire: Byron, Stoker,
Rice” (1996) Dracula is “very much a product of the Romantic movement, and of Lord
Byron” (McGinley 72). McGinley notes that Dracula is based on the historical Vlad
Tepes, “the fifteenth-century Romanian count, he is a noble outlaw, a devilish aristocrat
with an assertive desire to control, a passion for power and for life itself” (McGinley
74).
Dracula remained a quintessential figure through the early twentieth century but a
new twist to the vampire was introduced in 1954, when I am Legend by American
author Richard Matheson was published. Mary Pharr notes in her essay “Vampiric
Appetite in I Am Legend, ’Salem’s Lot, and The Hunger” (1999), that I Am Legend is
one of the first attempts to connect vampire mythology to science fiction (Pharr 95). In
1975 Stephen King publishes ’Salem’s Lot and Pharr comments that King is not one to
develop a new twist, as Matheson did on the vampire mythology but to use and breathe
new life into what already exists. In King’s novel ’Salem’s Lot, Pharr points out that
King “places Stoker’s myth on Matheson’s path and follows it to a Dark Romantic vista
from which he shows us a glimpse of an irrational infinity” (Pharr 96). Guiley notes that
’Salem’s Lot was King’s second novel, following after Carrie (1974) and she remarks
that King’s idea for ’Salem’s Lot came after a conversation King had about what would
happen if Dracula found himself in contemporary America and she adds that the
vampire in King’s novel is absolutely evil (Guiley 252).
Finally, a personal favorite and what this essay is about, Anne Rice’s Interview with
the Vampire is published in 1976. Joan Gordon and Veronica Hollinger in the
introduction of the book Blood Read: The Vampire as Metaphor in Contemporary
Culture (1997), assert that Rice’s Interview with the Vampire serves as one of the most
influential vampire fiction and since its publication the vampire “has undergone a
variety of fascinating transformations” (Gordon and Hollinger 1). Candace R. Benefiel
in her article “Blood relations: The Gothic Perversion of the Nuclear Family in Anne
Rice’s Interview with the Vampire” (2004) states that with the publication of Rice’s
first vampire novel, she managed to turn the vampire archetype on its head, focusing not
on the vampire hunters as in Dracula, but on the vampires themselves (Benefiel 261)
making the main focus of her novels on the relationships between the vampires. Since
Rice’s publication of her first book in The Vampire Chronicles in 1976 she has
published 11 other vampire novels from the years 1976- 2003.
Of course there are numerous other vampire novels that have been published and
even more has been published recently due to the new vampire fad that has been going
on today. Movies based on vampire fiction have become immensely popular, as the
recent Twilight Saga films by Stephenie Meyer have proven to be as well as the books
themselves. Meyer’s novels, became extremely popular and led to all four of them being
made into movies. Television shows based on vampire novels are also extremely
popular, as is evident with the show True Blood (2008) based on The Southern Vampire
Mysteries or The Sookie Stackhouse novels (2001-2011) by Charlaine Harris. These
even newer vampires still hold the same traits as Rice’s characters, although in some
cases they might have been exaggerated but in different directions. In the Twilight Saga
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(2005-2008) the vampire protagonists do not drink blood from humans, making them
vegetarians in a vampiric way, and they all live together as a family, each with their
roles as the mother and father and five adopted children, though in reality four of them
are couples and have been together as vampires for many years. Not quite as perverted
or incestuous as in Interview with the Vampire but the elements are there. The sexuality
is very subdued and they are never portrayed as overtly sexual in a hetero- or
homoerotic way. In True Blood however, their sexuality or sex is what the show is all
about, both between vampire and vampire, humans and vampires, man and woman,
woman and woman and man with man, there is no limitation.
Changes in the Li terary Vampire
Much has changed since the first vampire appeared in literature. As Williamson points
out, through the twentieth century the image of the vampire progressively becomes
sympathetic. And the fan culture around the vampire is still growing. This new and
evolved vampire no longer addresses the readers through fear alone but draws out other
emotional responses. Through the mid- to late twentieth century the vampire tradition
takes a significant turn in depicting the vampire characters as narrators, offering readers
according to Williamson “Otherness from the inside” (Williamson 28). Williamson
states further that Dracula is no longer the main attraction in vampire literature. The
new vampire came forth portraying them as “morally ambiguous” sympathetic and
suffering. The most evident change being the transformation of the reader’s perception
of the vampire, as Williamson explains “it is no longer predominantly a figure of fear in
Western popular culture, but a figure of sympathy” (Williamson 29). Margaret L. Carter
shares the same opinion in her essay “The Vampire as Alien in Contemporary Fiction”
(1997) discussing what she feels is a dramatic difference in the vampire genre. To her a
vampire in a Victorian novel might bestow alluring attraction or “even inspire
sympathy”, but she feels that the author of such a novel “always took for granted that
vampirism as such was evil” stating that a “fictional vampire aroused positive emotions
in spite of, not because of, his or her “curse”” and this is a very important point because
here is where the change becomes evident. Carter further asserts that most vampire
fiction published after the year 1970 “the vampire often appears as an attractive figure
precisely because he or she is a vampire”. This is one of the most important shifts in the
vampire fiction and represents to Carter a “change in cultural attitudes toward the
outsider, the alien other” (Carter 27). This is very evident in Rice’s vampire fiction as
mentioned by Williamson regarding the huge fan culture surrounding the vampire
(Williamson 28). Katherine Ramsland has a similar notion in her book Prism of the
Night (1992), that the “popularity of the vampire myth indicates that we are attracted as
much as repulsed” (Ramsland 146).
Jules Zanger in his essay “Metaphor into Metonymy: The Vampire Next Door”
(1997), describes the new vampire in contrast to the old vampire, which he says is Bram
Stoker’s Dracula (Zanger 17). He remarks that with each modification of the vampire
the new vampire becomes more human, however, the depiction of their relationships
with humans becomes less important and serves a lesser purpose (Zanger 20). The
human’s roles as victims have also become diminished according to Zanger, if
compared to Dracula’s interest in Mina and Lucy and then to the victims of Rice’s
vampires in the Chronicles, who as Zanger remarks, “are as indistinguishable from each
other as McDonald’s hamburgers-and serve much the same function” pointing out that
the most significant relationships in the Chronicles are, between vampire and vampire.
This point Zanger makes is not entirely true however, he does not mention Rice’s The
Tale of the Body Thief (1992). In that novel readers meet David Talbot, who had
already been introduced in The Queen of the Damned (1988). Lestat eventually
becomes what might be considered as good friends with him and this friendship
develops into a greatly affectionate relationship. The relationships between the vampires
are, in Rice’s first three Vampire Chronicles the most important relationships but
eventually, she introduces new characters and they are not all vampires.
Another effect Zanger notes is the sympathy of the reader has shifted from the
potential victim to the vampire (Zanger 21). That might have resulted from Rice
changing the narrative perspective to the vampire’s point of view, allowing her readers
to experience the story through the vampire’s eyes. McGinley discusses, that by shifting
the narrative perspective Rice further modernizes the vampires (McGinley 81). Martin
J. Wood also discusses this shift in the narrative perspective in Rice’s novels in his
essay “New Life for an Old Tradition: Anne Rice and Vampire Literature” (1999),
mentioning that having the narrative perspective from the vampires view point helps
readers identify with the vampire (Wood 67).
Wood gives a detailed analysis of the changes Rice has produced within her novels
and with these changes she has changed the whole vampire tradition. Wood suggests
this because the new tradition has readers feeling sympathy with the vampires, enjoying
and sometimes encouraging their preying on unsuspecting victims and if readers delve
even deeper into Rice’s earlier works they will find beneath her sultry seductive text
that both attracts and revolts evil, a disturbing underlying meaning, “Sensuousness
seems suddenly to become equated with death, pleasure with evil, erotic (especially
homoerotic) behavior with possession, consumption, and destruction” (Wood 59). That
is, no matter how much the vampires attract us, there is always something aberrant
underneath.
When describing the differences between Rice’s new vampires and the ones from the
old tradition they have very few similar traits other than being undead, nocturnal,
aristocratic and thirsty for blood. They do not transform into bats, fog or wolves, as
Dracula does, nor do they seem to, when it comes to feeding, prefer either sex to the
other (Wood 61) (Ramsland 148) (Benefiel 268). Moreover the location of the vampire
has changed. They no longer, as they did before Rice’s fiction dwell in remote and
isolated places, Lestat, Louis and other vampires in the Chronicles live in “comfortable,
well-furnished places generously appointed with art and cultural artifacts gathered
through the centuries” (Wood 65-66). The Gothic castle on the hill is no more, the
vampire lives next door and might even offer to babysit for you.
The Author, Anne Rice
Anne Rice was born October 4, 1941 and named by her parents Howard Allen Frances
O’Brien but she changed it herself to Anne in the first grade. When her father Howard
left in the year 1942 to enlist in the navy, Katherine, Rice’s mother now alone for the
first time and with two small children to look after turned to drinking and continued to
drink even after her husband returned (Ramsland 2-12). In the book Prism of the Night:
a Biography of Anne Rice (1992), Katherine Ramsland gives a detailed description of
Rice’s upbringing and her life, from loosing her mother to her marriage to Stan Rice,
the loss of their daughter and how she became an international best selling author.
Rice’s mother died when Rice was nearly fifteen years old (Ramsland 46).
By 1958 her father was remarried and had the opportunity to be resituated within his job
at the post office to the regional office in Dallas, Texas (Ramsland 55). Up until this
point Anne had been educated in Catholic schools, now almost seventeen and living in
Richardson a suburb of Dallas she was for the first time in a secular public school
(Ramsland 56). She met her husband to be Stan Rice in Richardson High School. He
was a year younger than she and had also just transferred to Richardson. They dated
casually but after Rice’s graduation in 1959 it was time for her to leave for Texas
Woman’s University and Stan showed no interest in a long distance relationship, she
left for college with a broken heart (Ramsland 60-61). The next semester Rice
transferred to North Texas State University where Stan had also enrolled (Ramsland
66). Rice found that North Texas State University was not for her so after only six
weeks she left and moved to San Francisco. In San Francisco Rice became independent
but also lonely (Ramsland 72). At the same time in Denton however, Stan was gaining
some experiences of his own. He realized that the only other person he knew with the
same passion as him was Rice and he decided to see if he could reclaim their friendship
and was shocked to discover she had gone to California, that he had “let her get away”.
He wrote her a long letter and Rice immediately wrote back as her love for him had
never died away and they continued to correspond with each other (Ramsland 72). One
morning she received a special delivery letter, it was from Stan asking her to be his wife
and soon they were married (Ramsland 74). For a while their life was good, they moved
to San Francisco where they attended classes and they spent most of their time studying
and working (Ramsland 79-82). Eventually they came into contact with other writers
and poets and even though at that time Rice was not writing, it was clear to all who
encountered her that she had a “strong and insatiable intellect, an ability to retain
details, and a drive that eventually would be channeled in ways that few among her
acquaintances foresaw in those early days” (Ramsland 84). While Stan’s career was
developing in a positive way, Rice and her writing ambitions were in the background
although Stan did encourage her. And then in the middle of all this disarray Rice
became pregnant (Ramsland 103). They were both ecstatic and Rice was looking
forward to being a mother (Ramsland 103). On September 21 1966, Rice gave birth to
their daughter and they named her Michele (Ramsland 104). During this time a friend of
the Rice’s, Michael Riley confessed to them that he was gay and to his astonishment
Rice not only completely accepted him but also became fascinated with most everything
that had to do with being gay (Ramsland 105).
She saw homosexuality as a physical realization of that ideal and looked to gay
men as figures that exhibited the erotic aspects of gender while transcending the
negative aspects. A man who transcends gender, she felt, sees the world more
clearly. (Ramsland 105-106)
It was during this time that the first inkling of the idea of her vampire story came to life.
A friend of theirs invited the Rice’s to stay with him for a week in his cabin at Big Sur.
During that stay Rice decided to write one story per night as an exercise. As it turns out
one of these stories was about a cynical vampire. This story she took out several times
to work on but ended up putting it away unfinished. As Ramsland elaborately exclaims:
“Without realizing it, she held in her hand the story that would one day radically change
her life” (Ramsland 109-110).
Their life went on quite the same for the next four years. Then their daughter
Michele became very ill and at the age of four years old she was diagnosed with acute
granulocytic leukemia (Ramsland 116). During her illness Michele matured emotionally
and seemed to understand what was happening to her “becoming an adult trapped in a
child’s body” (Ramsland 121). Despite these difficult times Rice decided to finish her
masters degree and graduated in 1972, during which time Michele was not doing so
well (Ramsland 126). Michele struggled with her disease for two years, then during the
night, one month before Michele sixth birthday she passed away and the doctor’s were
unable to revive her (Ramsland 128). Although they had been aware, during her two!
year illness that Michele could die, nothing could have prepared them for the tragic
shock (Ramsland 129).
The next period in their life after the death of Michele was one of heavy drinking. As
Ramsland expresses in her book, “They had already been drinking for many years, but
now they threw themselves into it with the same energy with which they had cared for
their sick child” (Ramsland 132).
Rice Begins to Write
The loss of their daughter put a strain on their marriage but Rice and Stan made a
decision to get through this together and renewed their commitment to each other. Stan
already had a career but Rice at the age of thirty-two had basically nothing (Ramsland
136-137). Rice joined a group of women who also wanted to be writers and developed
close friendships, especially with a woman named Carolyn Doty (Ramsland 137-140).
They had dinner together when Stan was teaching in the evenings and would discuss art
and the writings of others but not so much what they were working on themselves.
Among the writers they discussed were Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe and
Rice felt that:
Those were the American writers that I somehow connected with. They were
writers that had European-American voices. I felt they had a lot to teach me. She
was not aware at the time that she would soon take her place among American
storytellers of the supernatural. (Ramsland 140)
Finally Rice sat down and began to write (Ramsland 141).
She took out her vampire short story and began working on it to send it to a
competition. As Ramsland states, “She wanted to look at the vampire as a tragic figure,
a human who had made the mistake of choosing such an existence to his deepest regret”
(Ramsland 142). There was no way of knowing the immense change this story would
bring to her life. She was completely engulfed in her story, writing about Louis’s
childhood and religion made her delve into her own childhood and religious views,
although, Rice did not consider that events in her past might be fueling her words
(Ramsland 143). The tale begins with the vampire Louis who is telling a journalist
about his life before and after he became a vampire. He was a wealthy plantation owner
supporting his mother, sister and brother in New Orleans. Louis‘s brother Paul prays for
hours and wants him to sell the plantation and use the money for God. Louis refuses and
Paul in a rage walks to the top of the stairs, throws himself into the air causing him to
fall and break his neck (Ramsland 143-144). With Paul’s death in the story Rice was
able to identify with Louis, his grief, his loss and the regret. This is where the emotions
flared up for Rice and she began to write almost unconsciously (Ramsland 144).
Ramsland mentions that Rice wrote from a first-person viewpoint for intimacy and that
her sense of accuracy in describing the surroundings in her novels is exacting, “showing
attention to the fine nuances that charge a scene with intersensory” (Ramsland 145).
Ramsland suggests that writing through immortal characters gave Rice a safe place to
contemplate death and in her writings it was evident that the destructive nature of the
vampire was what alcohol had done to her mother Katherine, “what leukemia had done
to Michele” and what Michele’s death had done to Rice. Rice was torn between painful
remembering and the longing to forget, she found a way to combine both in the
“flexibility and tolerance of fiction”, in her first vampire novel she would “resurrect
Michele” and in her later novels she would do the same for her mother (Ramsland 146).
The Byronic Vampire in Anne Rice’s Vampire Characters
The vampires in Rice’s novels have more often than not been connected to the Byronic
figure. Williamson observes that the figure of the vampire as a rebellious outsider is not
exclusively a development of the twentieth century, nor is the public’s admiration of
him (Williamson 30). As mentioned before, John Polidori’s vampire character Lord
Ruthwen in “The Vampyre” according to Williamson is based on Lord Byron and one
of the reasons for its popularity with the public was because of its connection to Byron,
for at the same time Byron had become an outcast himself but simultaneously the
public’s curiosity about him grew. As Williamson notes, rumors of, incest, infidelity
and especially homosexuality had made him exile from the London society (Williamson
36). The Byronic hero as described by McGinley, is “a charming, seductive, aristocratic
character with a diabolical narcissism and desire to control” and she mentions that
Dracula, along with other vampire characters are linked with the Byronic hero
(McGinley 73). Rice’s characters Lestat along with Louis and other vampires in her
Vampire Chronicles can be seen as modern Byronic heroes with Lestat being the more
classic example (McGinley 82). Depicting him as a “noble outlaw” and an “aristocratic
rebel” who craves independence and power, breaking all the rules as in “making a child
vampire, revealing himself and the other vampires to mortals, and trying to become
mortal again” and as he was made into a vampire against his will, he is resolute in
making the most of it and “finds vampirism the greatest adventure of his existence”.
McGinley quotes Frances M. Doherty in her description of Lestat saying:
In Lestat, there is a splendidly aristocratic figure who has been corrupted from
good to evil, largely by events beyond his own control, a natural leader of men,
though basically an independent figure, at odds with others, someone with an
unshakable pride, ungovernable passions and a ravaged heart. (McGinley 82)
McGinley notes as well that the Byronic hero is also marked by guilt, and Louis
certainly fills that description but his Byronic traits are the opposite of Lestat’s. He feels
immensely guilty over the fact that he has to kill to sustain himself and he tries very
hard to hold on to his human sense of being and is much more sensitive than Lestat,
making Louis the most human of Rice’s vampires (McGinley 82).
McGinley argues that because the vampires in Rice’s fiction hold such strong human
emotions, “including love and guilt” they go a step beyond Dracula. And being “heavily
influenced by Catholicism” not that religious relics can hurt them, “they agonize over
the nature of good and evil in search of solace” mentioning Louis as being the most
influenced by his Catholic upbringing, holding a respect for it “even into his vampire
life” making it the source of his guilt. Another important aspect McGinley mentions is
Rice’s vampire characters capacity to love. She discusses that though “Dracula insisted
he could feel love, his version of love was eccentric” (McGinley 83). Lestat and Louis
and the other vampires in Rice’s fiction all seem to love each other one-way or the
other, “as they need companionship to endure their immortality” (McGinley ibid).
McGinley further notes that the “Ricean vampires” as she calls them, are even similar in
physical appearance to the Byronic hero, being pale and having mesmerizing eyes. She
discusses their sexuality by explaining that although they “are not sexual in the
traditional sense” the act of drinking blood is sensual noting, “this craving for sensation
is a particularly Byronic trait” (McGinley 83-84).
To McGinley Lestat and Louis each displays different sides of the Byronic hero
making them polar opposites. Using John D. Jump’s definition of the two opposites
from his book Byron (1972) the “Hero of Sensibility” and the “noble outlaw”. She
places Louis in the category of the “Hero of Sensibility”, stating “he has humanitarian
sympathies, and his love is as tender as it is passionate”, and Lestat being the “noble
outlaw” (McGinley 85). In conclusion McGinley notes that the final parallel between
Byron and vampires “is the imagery of eternity and immortality” observing that one of
the strongest fascinations with vampires for modern readers is the idea of immortality,
because of humanities “natural fear of death” and for that reason why vampires are
frightening, “for they may bring death faster than we expect”. However, to vampires
and especially to the “Ricean” vampires as McGinley remarks, immortality can be both
desirable and intolerable for, “eternity can seem an overwhelmingly long time”
(McGinley 85-86). By creating vampires more human than Dracula, “capable of love
and suffering under the weight of a guilty conscience, which Dracula did not posses”
McGinley states that Rice has further modernized the vampire while at the same time
“returning it to its Byronic roots” (McGinley 86). This Byronic figure is noticeable in
most all of Rice’s vampire fiction, from both Lestat and Louis in the first novels, to
Marius and Armand in later novels.
The Vampire Chronicles – The First Three Books
Interview With The Vampire (1976)
When Rice’s first book Interview With The Vampire was published in 1976 it was met
with mixed criticism but eventually it gained a massive following making it according
to Guiley the “second-highest-selling vampire novel, bested only by Bram Stoker’s
Dracula” (Guiley 162). The story as was described before is about the vampire Louis
and his life right before and after he is made a vampire. He has decided to tell his story
to a reporter, of how he was made a vampire by Lestat De Lioncourt. Together they live
in Louis’s mansion in Louisiana but Louis never really accepts his new identity and is
immensely guilty over his demonic nature, drinking blood. Lestat and Louis make a
child a vampire after Louis had lost his control and drunk her blood. Her vulnerability
called out to him. This vampire child was Claudia whom scholars have connected with
Rice’s deceased child Michele (Guiley 162) (Ramsland 154). Eventually this happy
little family becomes estranged as Claudia realizes that she is trapped in a child’s body
as she keeps maturing intellectually and is angered at Louis and Lestat for making her a
vampire. Claudia kills Lestat and she and Louis go to Europe to find others like them as
they seek answers to their origins, answers that Lestat would never give them. In Paris
they find Armand and his coven and Louis falls in love with him. However, Lestat did
not die and he finds them in Paris and tells Armand and his coven of Claudia and
Louis’s betrayal to him. Apparently it is a sin among the vampires to make a child a
vampire. The coven captures Claudia and kills her and Louis in a rage after finding out
about Claudia’s death, burns their dwelling and all the vampires within it. He and
Armand are together for a while but eventually they grow apart from each other and
Armand leaves him. Louis ends his narrative but the reporter does not accept Louis’s
ending and exclaims he wants Louis to make him a vampire. At this Louis attacks him,
drinks his blood but does not kill him. The reporter wakes up and the first thing on his
mind is to find Lestat. Thus ends Rice’s first Vampire Chronicle.
Interview With The Vampire gained much attention for many things but one specific
element that attracted a large following were the homoerotic aspects of the novel.
Andrew Schopp in his essay “Cruising the Alternatives: Homoeroticism and the
Contemporary Vampire” (1997) discusses the vampire and specifically Rice’s vampires
in her novels. He notes that the in Rice’s novels, homoeroticism is as common as the
hetero-erotic but that desire for the vampires, “does not rely on the sexual act, since
such acts are not really an option” (Schopp 237-238). This is not entirely true but given
the fact that Schopp’s article was published in 1997 he would not have known that in
Pandora (1998) the vampires actually do have sex but they realize at once that they do
not need to.
"Put it inside me," I said, reaching between his legs. "Fill me and hold me."
"This is stupid and superstitious!"
"It is neither," I said. "It is symbolic and comforting."
He obeyed. Our bodies were one, connected by this sterile organ which was no
more to him now than his arm, but how I loved the arm he threw over me and
the lips he pressed to my forehead. (Rice 293)
So the act is possible but not necessary or desired.
Schopp discusses the relationship between Louis and Lestat in Interview With The
Vampire remarking that not only does Rice write about two men living and traveling
together, they also take part together in creating the child vampire Claudia, basically
giving birth to her by “each one engaging in one half of the conversion act” and then
treating her as their child (Schopp 238-239). Considering the fact that when the vampire
makes a vampire he becomes the parent, therefore, when Louis and Lestat create
Claudia in an odd way, Louis became both her brother and father but also her lover.
Benefiel notes that the “vampire family, incestuous and blurred as it is, presents a
subversive alternative model to the nuclear family” (Benefiel 263). In her opinion the
vampire family as depicted by Rice in Interview with the Vampire is “so close to the
norm as to constitute a parody" explaining that Lestat, Louis and Claudia stay together
as quite the happy family for sixty-five years, “far beyond the length of most mortal
marriages” (Benefiel 264), and not just because of their immortality. Benefiel also
mentions that there is no sexual contact “normal or otherwise” between the family
members but that is not completely accurate. Even though there is no physical sexual
contact, there is obviously a sexual relationship between Louis and Claudia as Louis
claims himself in Interview with the Vampire,
She lived to put her arms around my neck and press her tiny cupid's bow to my
lips and put her gleaming eye to my eye until our lashes touched and, laughing,
we reeled about the room as if to the wildest waltz. Father and Daughter. Lover
and Lover. (Rice 101)
This dual relationship between Louis and Claudia, father and daughter, lover and lover
is repeated throughout Rice’s Chronicle’s as when Lestat makes his mother into a
vampire in The Vampire Lestat (1985) and again in The Tale of the Body Thief (1992)
when he makes David Talbot, his mortal companion into a vampire, thus becoming
again the parent and lover.
The Vampire Lestat (1985)
In The Vampire Lestat the erotic elements, being homoerotic or otherwise continue.
Now it is Lestat’s turn to tell his story. The story begins with Lestat awaking in 1984
after having been slumbering in the ground since 1929. He awakens to the sound of
rock music and decides to become an eighties rock star. From this novel on, it is clear
that Lestat has become the main character of the Vampire Chronicles. Louis is still there
but almost always in the background. Lestat eventually discovers Louis’s interview
tapes and feels that the whole story has not been said yet, particularly from his point of
view. He decides to tell his own story, from his childhood to his present state. He was
made a vampire by force by vampire named Magnus who then committed suicide. Left
with no guidance, Lestat makes his mother Gabriella and his best friend Nicolas into
vampires as well. However, Nicolas does not cope well with his new life and ends his
existence by going into the sun. During this time Lestat and his mother have met
Armand. Lestat seeks for answers about the meaning of his vampiric life and its origins
but Armand has no answers for him, only telling him of his own maker Marius who
might have the knowledge he seeks. Lestat becomes obsessed with finding Marius and
leaves carvings and signals for him wherever he goes. Gabriella leaves him and Marius
eventually approaches Lestat and tells him about the origins of vampires from ancient
Egypt and of Akasha and Enkil the mother and father of all vampires. They are however
as statues and have not moved for thousands of years but Lestat nevertheless awakens
Akasha and she allows him to drink her blood as she takes his blood. At this Enkil
wakes up, and throws Lestat from Akasha. Marius arrives just in time to save Lestat but
then he tells Lestat he must leave.
All this happens before Lestat finds Louis and Claudia. He has a different
perspective on their little family life than Louis has told of in Interview with the
Vampire. Lestat angers other vampires because he becomes a public figure as a rock
star and is telling the secrets of their existence. In the end of the story Lestat holds a
huge rock concert where many vampires have gathered with the intention of killing him.
However, the novel ends in suspense with Akasha the Queen awoken and she takes
Lestat. The story continues where this one ends in Rice’s next novel The Queen of the
Damned (1988). All this fiasco around Lestat in regard to his becoming a rock star and
“outing” himself and other vampires is his attempt to seem ultimately evil to accomplish
something good, as McGinley notes:
He hopes to serve some function, perhaps even serve a good purpose by
displaying himself as definitive evil. He therefore goes to extreme limits of evil,
almost hoping to be struck down by God, so at least he would know of His
existence. (McGinley 84)
If readers were shocked with the sensual relationship between adult and child in
Interview with the Vampire, and the homoeroticism “the second book offers the literally
incestuous relationship between Lestat and his human mother made vampire,
Gabriella”, as stated by Terri R. Liberman in his essay “Eroticism as Moral Fulcrum in
Rice’s Vampire Chronicles” (Liberman 117). Liberman points out that the eroticism in
Rice’s Vampire Chronicles is mostly expressed in two specific acts, “the kill” and in
creating another vampire and these acts are unmistakably, very sexual (Liberman 109).
However, as Schopp suggests, if the act of creating a vampire is a metaphor “for the
moment of indulging in sexualized homoerotic desire” then according to him the
Vampire Chronicles suggest that “satisfying this desire isn’t enough in itself” (Schopp
239). That is, there is always the fear of losing the one they love after they turn them
into vampires, as when Lestat made Nicolas, Nicolas turned against him and when
Armand meets Daniel, the reporter who interviewed Louis, he keeps him attached to
him by giving him small amounts of his blood, not wanting to turn him into a vampire
“because he fears the conversion will separate him from Daniel forever” (Schopp 239).
Armand eventually turns Daniel into a vampire. Schopp notes further that Rice has
often implied in her Vampire Chronicles that once the conversion has taken place and
the desire fulfilled, the desire to make a vampire “the relationship between the men is
doomed” (Schopp 239). This can be seen in the relationship between Louis and Lestat,
Claudia and Lestat (although Schopp is only mentioning the relationships between men,
it is also evident between men and women), Lestat and Nicolas, Lestat and his mother,
and in later novels between Marius and Pandora.
The Queen of the Damned (1988)
The next novel in the Chronicles is The Queen of the Damned (1988) where the story
continues from when Akasha has taken Lestat at his concert. The Queen has kidnapped
Lestat to help her accomplish her plans for the creation of a new world. She intends to
make the world right after all the cruelty and injustice caused by men over the centuries,
especially against women. To accomplish this she plans to, along with Lestat kill 99
percent of the male population on earth (Guiley 236). Readers are also introduced to
Maharet, a vampire as old as the Queen and Maharet tells how she and her twin sister
Mekare came to be vampires shortly after the King and Queen were made. Akasha has
also sent forth her forceful strength to kill other vampires, mostly the new and young
ones. The ones who survive, the old and the wise gather at Maharet’s house to figure
out a way to stop the Queen. The only problem is, because Akasha is the mother of all
vampires, the first vampire, she is their life force so that if she is killed all vampires will
die, as Lestat says himself in The Queen of the Damned, “if Akasha and Enkil should
ever walk hand in hand into a furnace, we should all burn with them. Crush them to
glittering dust, and we are annihilated” (Rice 12). So they cannot destroy Akasha
without destroying themselves. Before Akasha continues her plan, she confronts the
vampires gathered at Maharet’s house, offering them to join her or die. They all refuse
and right before Akasha can kill them Maharet’s twin sister Mekare whom Maharet has
not seen for thousands of years enters the house, tears Akasha’s head off and
commences to eat her brain and her heart, thus taking the life force of the vampires into
herself and destroying the Queen of the damned.
Although there have been female vampires before The Queen of the Damned, it is in
this book that Rice depicts her strong female characters. Akasha of course is very strong
but ultimately evil as her plan was to get rid of almost all the men in the world. Rita
Antoni criticizes Rice in her article “A Vampiric Relation to Feminism: The Monstrous
Feminine in Whitley Strieber’s and Anne Rice’s Gothic Fiction” for her portrayal of
women in Rice’s Vampire Chronicles. To Antoni the “representation of gender relations
in these novels, as seen by feminist readings, deploys a certain level of dissatisfaction”
(Antoni 8). She mentions what has already been noted in this essay that in the first two
novels in The Vampire Chronicles the main emphasis is on “intellectual and homoerotic
bonds between male vampires” and that Rice’s literature has been greatly valued for
“transcending gender boundaries and the ideological system of compulsory
heterosexuality” thus portraying gender as irrelevant. However, in Antoni’s opinion the
irrelevance of gender is merely shown “by almost all male characters” and therefore
contributes to the “marginalization” of female characters. She feels that the female
characters are mostly powerless although they can be wise and strong they are more
often than not depicted as isolated and alone (Antoni 8-9). In Antoni’s opinion Akasha
is the only character with political and moral concerns about the marginalization of
women “and the violence against them” and that the other female characters who defeat
Akasha do not even try to come up with an alternative solution, only telling her that the
humans need time to mend their ways and to Antoni this situation implies the failure of
sisterhood, meaning that since they have become vampires they have become
indifferent to the violence against them and other women (Antoni 12).
Wood has another notion of the females in The Queen of the Damned. Firstly he
points out that Rice has created within her fiction a new myth, a new Adam and Eve but
Adam is Akasha, “the female” and to Wood only the women are the “active parties” and
Maharet and Mekare are the “essential catalysts, and the important sacrificial victims”.
Secondly Wood feels that all the males, even Lestat, “are powerless in an apocalyptic
struggle among vampire women”. Wood maintains that The Queen of the Damned
suggests “a powerful matriarchy among vampires, counterpoised against the
predominantly patriarchal order among humans” (Wood 75). Furthermore according to
Wood, Rice’s vampire fiction are not condemning men or masculinity but to an
“unthinking allegiance to a system where power determines everything, including
sexuality–allegiance, in other words, to an outdated social code” (Wood 76).
I rather agree with Wood regarding this point rather than Antoni. Although the
female characters are not as noticeable as the male characters, my notion was always
that they do not need to be in the foreground and do what needs to be done mostly
silently in the background. Which differs from Lestat who always needs to be in the
center of attention, that could be connected to his acting career in his mortal life and
considering the fact that he chose to become a rock star, it seems evident that he needs
the attention. Even though Akasha is quite evil, her plan was to make the world a better
place but her solution to eliminate all men who had in her opinion caused all the
problems to begin with, seemed to be naive as a plan to remove a problem instead of
working on it always is. I always thought of Maharet as the ultimate female hero in the
Chronicles, someone who had all the answers and the courage to do what she felt
needed to be done, without seeking the glory for it.
Later Novels in The Vampire Chronicles
The Vampire Chronicles came to the total of twelve books. The next novel in Rice’s
Chronicles is The tale of the Body Thief (1992). As the title indicates the story revolves
around Lestat having his body stolen from him, as he had only agreed to switch bodies
for a specific time. It is also about the relationship between Lestat and David and how
through the unfortunate event that Lestat has his body stolen, David in helping him
retrieve it back is forced to switch bodies as well and ends up in a much younger, fitter
and handsome body. However, Lestat is lonely and though David has refused many
times his offer of turning him into a vampire, Lestat makes him a vampire anyway in
what Schopp sees as a “disturbing rape fantasy” (Schopp 240). Liberman remarks that
the central theme in all four books is “the struggle between good and evil” (Liberman
110). This theme is also evident in the next novels. In Memnoch the Devil (1995) Lestat
meets the devil and according to Guiley, the devil takes him on a tour of heaven and
hell to make Lestat decide which side he wants to join (Guiley 200), and because he
wants Lestat to take over his job for him in hell, the ultimate good and evil.
Then Armand tells his story in Rice’s next novel The Vampire A rmand (1998).
There he tells of his life before and after he was made a vampire by Marius. Marius also
tells his story in Rice’s novel Blood and Gold (2001). In later novels Rice mixes the
vampires with her Mayfair witches, which she had at that time already published a
trilogy about, The Witching Hour (1990), Lasher (1993) and Taltos (1994). In Merrick
(2000), Blackwood Farm (2002) and Rice’s final novel Blood Canticle (2003) the
vampires and the Mayfair witches interconnect and ironically Lestat falls in love with
one of the Mayfair witches. Rice also wrote about Pandora (1998) who was Marius’s
love and Vittorio the Vampire (1999).
Although all these novels are successful the first four novels are the ones who have
gained most attention and most scholars have written about. Every reader who is a fan
has found through Rice’s writing something in the characters or in the characters
dilemmas that they can relate to in their own lives.
Conclusion
The development of the literary vampire has been a long journey and is still ongoing.
From the first popular story in English literature of Lord Ruthwen in “The Vampyre” by
Polidori, Varney the Vampire by Rymer, Le Fanu’s lesbian “Carmilla” to ruthless
Dracula by Bram Stoker, Stephen King’s depiction of him to Anne Rice’s Vampire
Chronicles. This ongoing evolution of the vampire in fiction has led to even newer
depictions of the undead today as before mentioned popularity of the Twilight saga
(2005-2008) novels and movies (2008-2011) (Rosenberg and Meyer) and True Blood
(2008) TV series show. The fascination of the vampire in fiction has in no way
decreased which tells us that even though the vampires are in so many ways abnormal
and anomalous people just cannot seem to get enough of them.
Through the analysis of the first three novels in Rice’s Vampire Chronicles the
theme of love and relationships is noticeably strong and predominant. The deep desire
to find a companion to love and to be loved is essential for most creatures. How else
could anyone, especially a vampire endure the loneliness of eternity? Lestat will always
love Louis and Louis will always love him but they grew apart and could not spend
eternity together. What relationship can last forever, especially if you are a vampire and
are doomed to live infinitely?
Through Rice’s Chronicles she has changed the way readers think of vampires,
gender, relationships and love, as she made her vampire characters sympathetic and
likeable despite the fact that they drink blood to nourish themselves. Readers are now
able to relate to the characters and not only be repulsed as before but feel attracted. Rice
has made it easy for her readers to feel empathy with the vampires and thus the lives of
the readers and vampire characters become interwoven and this might be why Rice’s
Vampire Chronicles were and are still so popular.
Not only did Rice create a new vampire but she also cleared the way for new writers
to make their own depiction of the genre and create the new vampire of today. Rice’s
Chronicles have also helped young readers find interest in literature as she did for me,
for after reading Interview with the Vampire my interest to read more literature of all
kind was kindled, as most likely other young readers have experienced. Rice’s fiction
opened up for me a whole new world to explore new literary fiction, of course after
reading Rice’s Chronicles first.

Works Cited
Anne Rice – The Vampire Chronicles (In publication order)
Rice, Anne. Interview with the Vampire : a novel. New York: Knopf, 1976.
---. The Vampire Lestat. New York: Ballantine Books, 1986.
---. The Queen of the Damned. New York: Ballantine Books, 1989.
---. The tale of the Body Thief. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993.
---. Memnoch the Devil. New York: Ballantine Books, 1996.
---. The Vampire A rmand. New York: Ballantine Books, 1999.
---. Pandora : New Tales of the Vampires. New York: Ballantine Books, 1999.
---. Vittorio, the Vampire. New York: Ballantine Books, 2001.

---. Blood and Gold : or, The Story of Marius. New York: Ballantine, 2001.
---. Blackwood Farm. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003.
---. Blood Canticle : a novel. New York: Ballantine Books, 2004.
Anne Rice – The Mayfair Witches
Rice, Anne. The Witching Hour. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993.
---. Lasher. London etc: Penguin Books, 1994.
---. Taltos : Lives of the Mayfair Witches. New York: Ballantine Books, 1996.
Other Literary Works and Media
Fanu, Joseph Sheridan Le. "Carmilla. " Scotts Valley: IAP, 2009.
Harris, Charlaine. The Sookie Stackhouse novels. New York: Ace Books, 2009.
King, Stephen. Salem's Lot. Garden City: Doubleday, 1975.
Matheson, Richard. I Am Legend. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2007.
Meyer, Stephenie. The Twilight Saga Complete Collection. New York: Little, Brown
Books for Young Readers, 2010.
Polidori, John. The vampyre and other writings. Manchester: Carcanet, 2005.
Rymer, James Malcolm. Varney the Vampire. Ed. Curt Herr. Crestline, CA: Zittaw
Press, 2007.
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein or The modern Prometheus. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2009.
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. West Berlin, N.J: Townsend Press, 2003.
Tieck, Johann Ludwig von. "Wake Not The Dead." Gloucester. Dodo Press, 2008.
Twilight. By Stephenie Meyer and Melissa Rosenberg. Dir. Catherine Hardwicke.
Summit Entertainment. Summit Entertainment, 2008. Film.
The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn. By Stephenie Meyer and Melissa Rosenberg.
Dir. Bill Condon. Summit Entertainment. Summit Entertainment, 2011,2012. Film.
The Twilight Saga: Eclipse. By Stephenie Meyer and Melissa Rosenberg. Dir. David
Slade. Prod. Summit Entertainment. Summit Entertainment, 2010. Film.
The Twilight Saga: New Moon. By Stephenie Meyer and Melissa Rosenberg. Dir.
Chris Weitz. Summit Entertainment. Summit Entertainment, 2009. Film.
True Blood. By Charlaine Harris and Alan Ball. Prod. HBO. HBO, 2008. Television.
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Studies in Hungary 4.1 (2008): 1-15. Web. 30 Mar 2011.
<http://americanaejournal.hu/vol4no1/antoni>
Bane, Theresa. Encyclopedia of Vampire Mythology. Ebook. Jefferson: Macfarland and
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261-273. Web. 30 Mar 2011.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3840.2004.00111.x
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2011<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/450203/penny-dreadful>.
Carter, Margaret L. "The Vampire as Alien in Contemporary Fiction." Blood Read: The
Vampire as Metaphor in Contemporary Culture. Ed. Joan Gordon and Veronica
Hollinger. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. 27-44.
!
!
! ! "#$%#&'()**+&!!
!
4,!
Geary, Robert F. ""Carmilla" and the Gothic Legacy: Victorian Transformations of
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Pharr Leonard G. Heldreth. Bowling green: Bowling Green State University Press,
1999. 19-29.
Gordon, Joan and Veronica Hollinger. "Introduction: The Shape of Vampires." Blood
Read: The Vampire as Metaphor in Contemporary Culture. Ed. Joan Gordon and
Veronica Hollinger. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. 1-7.
Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Warewolves and Other
Monsters. Ebook. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2005.
Hoppenstand, Gary and Ray B. Browne. "Vampires, Witches, Mummies, and Other
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Liberman, Terri R. "Eroticism as Moral Fulcrum in Rice's Vampire Chronicles." The
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McGinley, Kathryn. "Development of the Byronic Vampire: Byron, Stoker, Rice." The
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Pharr, Mary. "Vampiric Appetite in I Am Legend, ’Salem’s Lot, and The Hunger." The
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Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1999. 93-102.
Ramsland, Katherine. Prism of the Night: a biography of Anne Rice. New York: Plume,
1992.
Rickels, Laurence A. The Vampire Lectures. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1999.
Schopp, Andrew. "Cruising the Alternatives: Homoeroticism and the Contemporary
Vampire." Journal of Popular Culture 30.4 (1997): 231-243. Web. 30 mar 2011.
DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-3840.1997.3004_231.x
Senf, Carol A. "Daughters of Lilith: Women Vampires in Popular Literature." The
Blood Is The Life: Vampires In Literature. Ed. Mary Pharr Leonard G. Heldreth.
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Switzer, Richard. "Lord Ruthwen and the Vampires." The French Review 29.2 (1955):
107-112. Web. 18 Apr 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/382161>
Telotte, J.P. "A Parasitic Perspective: Romantic Participation and Polidori's The
Vampyre." The Blood Is The Life: Vampires in Literature. Ed. Leonard G. Heldreth
and Mary Pharr. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press,
1999. 9-18.
Williamson, Milly. The Lure of the Vampire: Gender, Fiction and Fandom from Bram
Stoker to Buffy. London: Wallflower Press, 2005.
Wood, Martin J. "New Life for an Old Tradition: Anne Rice and Vampire Literature."
The Blood Is The Life: Vampires in Literature. Ed. Leonard G. Heldreth and Mary
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